Sinus Headache Symptoms, Relief, Remedies, Treatments and Facts
A mild to severe pain in the head is classified as a headache. A sinus headache is caused when the sinuses are swollen and congested with mucus due to a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection. There is no pain worse than that of a severe headache. Absolutely nobody is spared headaches. Infants to children to the young to the very old, everyone suffers from headaches at some time or the other for a variety of reasons.
Types of headaches can be divided into two categories - Primary and Secondary. There are many types of headaches, but the most common are tension-type headache, migraine, and cluster headache which all fall under the Primary Headache category. A sinus headache falls into the Secondary Headache category.
A sinus headache and a migraine are commonly confused. The sudden, throbbing pain and immediate malaise of both the sinus headache and a migraine might be difficult to diagnose at first. Basically, a sinus headache is commonly caused by sinusitis and presents typical symptoms of a sinus infection: tenderness in the sinus cavities, foul-smelling discharge, fever and a reduced sense of smell. A migraine headache afflicts the front, top or back of the head and might cause neck pain. Migraines are accompanied by nausea and vomiting, sensitivity to noises and bright lights, and they can be very debilitating.
Migraines affect people, predominantly women, between the ages of 15 and 55, and they might be hereditary. A migraine sufferer often experiences an "aura" 10-30 minutes before a bout, and it might include seeing visions of flashing lights or blind spots, numbing or tingling in the face or extremities and mental confusion as well as inhibited taste, touch or smell. Two distinct symptoms that differentiate a migraine from a sinus headache are nausea and extreme sensitivity to lights.
Signs and Symptoms
Sinus headaches generally have these symptoms:
Pressure-like pain in one specific area of your face or head (for example, behind your eyes)
Face is tender to the touch
Pain is worse with sudden movements of the head and bending forward
Worse pain in the morning, because mucus has been collecting and draining all night
Sudden temperature changes, like going out into the cold from a warm room, worsen the pain
Headache often starts when you have a bad cold or just after
Other symptoms may be related to sinus inflammation (sinusitis):
Postnasal drip with sore throat (pharyngitis)
Yellow or green discharge from your nose
Red and swollen nasal passages (nasal congestion)
Mild to moderate fever
General sense of not feeling well
Migraines can also feel worse when you bend forward and can be accompanied by nasal congestion. But a migraine is more likely to be made worse by noise or light, and to be accompanied by nausea.
Relief, Remedies, Treatments
The best way to avoid or get rid of a sinus headache is to treat the underlying sinus inflammation. Your doctor may prescribe antibiotics or corticosteroids. Lifestyle changes, such as using a humidifier or irrigating your nasal passages with salt water, may also help. Several dietary supplements and herbs may help prevent colds and flu or shorten their duration, or work together with antibiotics to treat your infection and support your immune system.
Doing the following things can help reduce congestion in your sinuses:
Using a humidifier
Using a saline nasal spray
Breathing in steam 2 - 4 times per day (for example, sitting in the bathroom with the shower running)
Quickly treating allergic and asthma attacks
Other techniques that might help include:
Stretches for the head and neck
Antibiotics -- Your doctor may prescribe antibiotics if he or she suspects you have a bacterial infection. To treat acute sinusitis, you may take from 10 - 14 days of antibiotics. Treating chronic sinusitis may take longer, usually 3 - 4 weeks.
Nasal corticosteroids -- These prescription sprays reduce inflammation of the nose and help relieve sneezing, itching, and runny nose. They are most effective at reducing symptoms, although it can take from a few days to a week after you start using them to see improvement.
Antihistamines -- Antihistamines are available in both oral and nasal spray forms, and as prescription drugs and over-the-counter remedies, to treat allergies. Over the counter antihistamines are short acting and can relieve mild to moderate symptoms. All work by blocking the release of histamine in your body.
Decongestants -- Many over the counter and prescription decongestants are available in tablet or nasal spray form. They are often used with antihistamines.
Oral and nasal decongestants: Some decongestants may contain pseudoephedrine, which can raise blood pressure. People with high blood pressure or enlarged prostate should not take drugs containing pseudoephedrine. Avoid using nasal decongestants for more than 3 days in a row, unless specifically instructed by your doctor, because they can cause rebound congestion. Do not use them if you have emphysema or chronic bronchitis.
Triptans -- In one study, 82% of patients with sinus headaches had a significant response to triptans, a medication commonly used for migraines.
Surgery and Other Procedures
For chronic sinusitis that doesn't respond to medication, your doctor may recommend endoscopic sinus surgery, which may be done to remove polyps or bone spurs. Enlarging the sinus opening is also sometimes recommended. A newer procedure called balloon rhinoplasty involves inserting a balloon inside the sinus cavity and then inflating it.
Sinus surgeries are done by an ENT specialist.
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements
Several supplements may help prevent or treat sinus headaches, either by reducing sinus inflammation or by helping to ward off colds. Because supplements may have side effects or interact with medications, you should take them only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider.
Bromelain -- Several studies suggest that bromelain, an enzyme derived from pineapples, may help reduce inflammation and swelling and relieve symptoms of sinusitis. However, not all studies agree. Bromelain is often combined with quercetin, a flavonoid or plant pigment responsible for the colors found in fruits and vegetables, that may act as an antihistamine. Bromelain may increase the risk of bleeding, so people who take blood-thinners such as warfarin (Coumadin) or clopidogrel (Plavix) should not take bromelain without talking to their doctor first. Taking bromelain with ACE inhibitors may cause a drop in blood pressure, called hypotension.
Quercetin -- Quercetin is a flavonoid, a plant pigment responsible for the colors found in fruits and vegetables. In test tubes, it stops the production and release of histamine, which causes allergy symptoms such as a runny nose and watery eyes. It's often combined with bromelain, a supplement made from pineapples. However, there is not yet much evidence that quercetin would work the same way in humans. More studies are needed. Some people may prefer water-soluble forms of quercetin, such as hesperidin methyl chalcone (HMC) or quercetin chalcone. Quercetin may interact with certain medications, so ask your doctor before taking it.
Probiotics (Lactobacillus) -- Probiotics, or "friendly" bacteria, may help if you are taking antibiotics for sinusitis. They may also reduce your chances of developing allergies. People who have weakened immune systems or who take drugs to suppress the immune system should ask their doctor before taking probiotics.
The use of herbs is a time honored approach to strengthening the body and treating disease. Herbs, however, can trigger side effects and can interact with other herbs, supplements, or medications. For these reasons, you should take herbs with care, under the supervision of a health care practitioner.
As with supplements, there are many herbs that may help reduce your chances of getting a sinus headache by preventing or treating a cold, boosting your immune system, or reducing sinus inflammation.
Sinupret, a proprietary formulation containing European elder (Sambucus nigra), common sorrel (Rumex acetosa), cowslip (Primula veris), European vervain (Verbena officinalis), and gentian (Gentiana lutea) -- In two studies, Sinupret was found to work better than placebo in relieving symptoms of sinusitis. The herbs it contains may work by thinning mucus and helping the sinuses to drain, and they may also help strengthen the immune system.
Although research is lacking, other herbs have been used traditionally to treat headaches:
Chinese skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis)
Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium)
Willow bark (Salix spp.)
People who take blood thinners or women who are pregnant or breastfeeding must not take these herbs. People who allergic to aspirin should not take willow bark. Feverfew can interact with several medications. If you are allergic to ragweed you may also be allergic to feverfew.
One of the most common reasons people seek homeopathic care is to relieve chronic headaches. Few studies have examined the effectiveness of specific homeopathic remedies. Professional homeopaths, however, may recommend treatments for sinus headaches based on their knowledge and clinical experience. In one study of homeopathy for sinusitis, more than 80% of the participants had significant improvement in their symptoms after taking the homeopathic remedy for 2 weeks.
The following are remedies commonly prescribed for sinus congestion and headache:
Arsenicum album -- for throbbing, burning sinus pain that is relieved by lying upright in a cool room with open windows
Belladonna -- for throbbing headaches that come on suddenly and feel worse with motion and light; pain is partially relieved by pressure, standing, sitting, or leaning backwards
Bryonia -- for headaches with a steady, sharp pain that occurs most often in the forehead but may radiate to the back of the head; symptoms tend to worsen with movement and light touch, but firm pressure alleviates the pain; the person for whom this remedy is most appropriate is usually irritable and may experience nausea, vomiting, and constipation
Hepar sulphuricum -- for headaches described as "a nail being driven between the eyes;" these types of headaches are often accompanied by thick, yellow nasal discharge; symptoms tend to worsen with movement and light touch of the scalp and improve with pressure
Iris versicolor -- for throbbing headaches that occur on one side of the head, especially after eating sweets; visual disturbances may also occur; these headaches are worse in the early morning, during spring and fall, and symptoms tend to worsen with vomiting
Kali bichromicum -- for sinus headaches and congestion; pain often occurs between and behind the eyes; symptoms generally progress throughout the morning, worsen with cold and motion, and improve with warmth and pressure
Mercurius -- for raw, swollen nostrils; this remedy is most appropriate for individuals whose pain feels as though the head has been placed in a vise; pain may also extend to the teeth; symptoms tend to worsen at night and the individual may alternate between sweating and having the chills; nasal discharge may be bloody
Natrum muriaticum -- for headaches and congestion associated with allergies
Pulsatilla -- for headaches triggered by eating rich, fatty foods, particularly ice cream; pain may move around the head but tends to be concentrated in the forehead or on one side of the head and may be accompanied by digestive problems or occur around the time of menstruation; symptoms tend to worsen at night and with coughing and blowing the nose; children often develop these symptoms while at school
Silicea -- for sinus pain that improves with pressure, head wraps, and warm compresses
Spigelia -- for stinging, burning, or throbbing sinus pain that often occurs on the left side of the head; symptoms tend to worsen with cold weather and motion but may be temporarily relieved by cold compresses and lying on the right side with the head propped up
Although there are no studies on using chiropractic to treat sinus headaches, some practitioners suggest that it may decrease pain and improve sinus drainage for some people.